MUHAMMADIYAH.OR.ID, YOGYAKARTA—Muhammadiyah officially proclaims 1 Ramadan 1444 H on Thursday, 23 March 2023, 1 Shawwal 1444 H on Friday, 21 April 2023, and 1 Dhul-Hijjah 1444 H on Monday, 19 June 2023. The Chairman of Muhammadiyah for Tarjih and Tajdid Syamsul Anwar highlighted that the determination is not based on the height of the new moon but the geometric position of the sun, earth, and moon (a reckoning method/hisab hakiki wujudul hilal).
The method sees the new month begins when on the 29th day the sunset meets three criteria cumulatively that: 1) ijtima (conjunction) occurs; 2) conjunction occurs before sunset; and 3) the moon (its upper disk) is still above the horizon when the sun sets. The method shows certainty instead of a traditional mean, rukyatul hilal.
Syamsul mentioned the three criteria have been met, so 1 Ramadan 1444 H is on Thursday, 23 March 2023. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia applies the criteria of the Ministers of Religion of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore (MABIMS), which are the height of the new moon of 3 degrees and elongation of 6.4 degrees in determining the beginning of the Hijri month. Thus, the first Ramadan falls on the same day, but the beginning of Shawwal and Dhul-Hijjah may differ from Muhammadiyah’s decree.
“According to the MABIMS, if the criteria are not met, the new moon happens on the next day,” said Syamsul at the press conference of “The Enactment of Reckoning of Ramadan, Shawwal, and Dhul-Hijjah 1444 H” on Monday (6/2) at the Muhammadiyah Office of Yogyakarta.